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During the Renaissance five orders were used, the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite, with various ones prevalent in different periods.
For example, the ornate, decorative quality of the Corinthian order was embraced during the early Renaissance, while the masculine simplicity and strength of the Doric was preferred during the Italian High Renaissance.
All the moldings, door and window frames, and orders are of a soft blue-gray stone () contrasted against a light stucco wall.
The ornamental features have very little projection, being rather lines on a surface.
Winning the competition, Brunelleschi began the great dome in 1420 (the finishing touches were not applied until the 1460s and ’70s, after his death).
The Florentine dome still belongs within the Gothic tradition, as it was built with rib construction and a pointed arch form, but the introduction of a Ospedale degli Innocenti (1419–51) was the first building in the Renaissance manner; a very graceful arcade was designed with Composite columns, and windows with Classical pediments were regularly spaced above each of the arches.
The concern of these architects for proportion led to the clear, measured expression and definition of architectural space and mass that differentiates the Renaissance style from the Gothic and encourages in the spectator an immediate and full comprehension of the building.
This style was more fully exploited in the church of 1460).
Using the traditional basilica plan, the plan and elevations were organized on a system of proportions with the height of the nave equal to twice its width.
Florence was characterized by a large round arch instead of the usual Gothic pointed arch and preserved the simplicity and monumentality of Classical architecture.
The Renaissance might have been expected to appear first in Rome, where there was the greatest quantity of ancient Roman ruins; however, during the 14th and early 15th centuries, when the Italians were impelled to renew classicism, the political situation in Rome was very unfavourable for artistic endeavour.